Inscripción armenia en la iglesia de Surb Karapet

Inscripción armenia en la iglesia de Surb Karapet


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El Rey de Jordania: "La Iglesia Apostólica Armenia de San Karapet en Jordania es el testamento de la perdurable historia armenia en nuestro país"

El Rey del Reino Hachemita de Jordania, Su Real Majestad Abdullah II Al Hussein All Hashimi, quien se encuentra en Armenia en visita oficial, en el Palacio Presidencial en presencia de las delegaciones oficiales de los dos países, diplomáticos locales y extranjeros, jefes de organizaciones internacionales y eruditos orientalistas enviaron su mensaje sobre el tema de "religión y tolerancia".

Anteriormente, el presidente Armen Sarkissian, en su declaración, evaluó la visita de Su Real Majestad a Armenia como histórica y, como armenio, expresó su gratitud al pueblo de Jordania y a la familia King & rsquos, & ldquoTodo el mundo recuerda que su abuelo hizo un llamamiento a los árabes para que dieran refugio a los Armenios que habían sobrevivido al genocidio armenio. Y yo, en nombre de mi pueblo, me gustaría expresar mi más profundo agradecimiento. & Rdquo

El Presidente también informó que tuvieron una maravillosa discusión con Su Real Majestad, habló sobre el potencial de cooperación entre los dos países y pueblos en las áreas de turismo, educación, ciencia, tecnologías, seguridad, seguridad alimentaria y agricultura.

Su Real Majestad Abdullah II, en nombre de la delegación de Jordania, expresó su gratitud por la cálida bienvenida. "Ereván, una de las ciudades más antiguas del mundo, es todavía una ciudad joven y vibrante", dijo el Rey. "Me recuerda mucho a mi amado Jordan." Nuestros dos países y pueblos tienen en el mundo contemporáneo su lugar único, sin dejar de ser fieles a nuestras identidades, culturas y fe. Y Jordania, al igual que Armenia, ha hecho de su capital humano la principal fuerza impulsora de su camino hacia el desarrollo. Nuestros países tienen mucho que ganar con la cooperación para capitalizar este potencial prometedor.

Aunque esta es nuestra primera visita oficial a su hermoso país, nos sentimos como una familia y, de hecho, somos una familia. Estos vínculos se remontan a cientos de años. Mi abuelo, como usted mencionó, señor presidente, mandó amar a Dios y amar al prójimo y dio refugio a las familias cristianas armenias. Mi abuelo, mi abuelo, mi padre y yo, ayudando a los que están desesperadamente necesitados, entendimos que era la única opción. Es un deber por el que Jordan sigue viviendo. Miles de jordanos tienen sus raíces en Armenia. Son un honor para nuestros dos países y juegan un papel vital en las artes, la educación, el servicio público, los negocios y mucho, mucho más. Y forman la base sólida sobre la que continúa nuestra amistad. & Rdquo

El rey Abdullah dijo que el Reino Hachemita de Jordania se estaba preparando para celebrar su primer centenario, & ldquoMiramos hacia atrás con cariño y con orgullo el papel que los jordanos de ascendencia armenia y todos los jordanos han desempeñado trabajando por el progreso y la prosperidad de nuestra patria & rdquo, dijo. . “Pero nuestra historia conjunta se extiende mucho más allá de eso. Los armenios de Oriente Medio forman parte de la comunidad cristiana más antigua del mundo. Son una parte inextricable de nuestro pasado y esperamos trabajar con usted para asegurarnos de que continúen desempeñando un papel tan importante en la configuración del presente y el futuro.

La Iglesia Apostólica Armenia de San Karapet en Jordania se encuentra en el lugar del bautizo de Jesucristo a orillas del río Jordán. Es el testimonio de la perdurable historia armenia en nuestro país.

El barrio armenio de Jerusalén ha sido parte de la ciudad durante siglos, y el Patriarcado armenio junto con otras iglesias ha estado bajo la protección de Omar & rsquos. Una tradición de convivencia cristiana y musulmana se remonta a más de mil trescientos años. Esta herencia continúa hoy en los lugares sagrados islámicos y cristianos. Este es un deber que llevo con orgullo. Y estoy especialmente orgulloso de ser responsable de los lugares sagrados del Patriarcado armenio de Jerusalén. Jerusalén tiene un gran significado histórico, no solo para mí y mi familia, la ciudad es sagrada para las tres religiones monoteístas, y todas ellas tienen un interés en salvaguardar la paz espiritual y la coexistencia que simboliza. No podemos permitir que la Ciudad Santa se convierta en una ciudad de violencia y división. Por lo tanto, la preservación de la identidad de la ciudad y los rsquos, su estatus legal, así como el status quo histórico en las relaciones con los lugares sagrados, tanto islámicos como cristianos, es de vital importancia. Esperamos que líderes cristianos y amigos como usted de todo el mundo protejan a Jerusalén como una ciudad unificadora de paz. Hoy he hablado de nuestra antigua amistad que tiene una rica historia.

Los jordanos de ascendencia armenia han estado creando durante los últimos 100 años una historia ejemplar de amistad y han demostrado que la amistad y, ciertamente, la hermandad siempre ganan.

Entonces, espero que en los días y meses venideros podamos escribir un nuevo capítulo juntos, un capítulo que se base en la amistad que comenzó hace tanto tiempo, una nueva asociación y una promesa para toda nuestra gente. & Rdquo


Inscripción armenia en la iglesia de Surb Karapet - Historia

La iglesia armenia de Santa María (Surb Astuatsatsin) en Madrás / Chennai, que tuve el privilegio de visitar durante mi breve trabajo de campo en la India en julio de 2003, fue construida en 1772 en un terreno que anteriormente servía como cementerio para los armenios. Según Mesrob Seth en su aclamado libro (Los armenios en la India desde los primeros tiempos hasta el presente, 1897 y segunda edición ampliada 1939), la propiedad en la que se erigió la iglesia pertenecía al comerciante armenio preeminente de Madrás, Agha Shahamir Sultanoum, (es decir, Shahamir Shamirian). En el mismo trabajo, Seth proporciona los siguientes breves comentarios sobre la historia de esta iglesia y # 8217:

& # 8220La primera iglesia armenia en Madrás se erigió en 1712. Era uno de los pocos edificios magníficos en la Explanada de esa ciudad, pero los armenios se vieron obligados a abandonarla después de un tiempo, ya que las autoridades británicas no lo permitían. un edificio tan alto para estar en las inmediaciones del fuerte & # 8221 (580, edición de 1939).

Aunque Seth, como de costumbre, no proporciona fuentes para elegir la fecha 1712 como el momento más temprano posible para la primera iglesia de Madrás, es probable que se haya guiado por una inscripción en una de las paredes de la iglesia donde la fecha & # 82201712 & # 8221 todavía es claramente visible. (vea la segunda imagen a continuación)

Varias pruebas, incluido un documento que descubrí recientemente en la Biblioteca Británica la semana pasada y que es la ocasión directa de este blog, sugieren que 1712 es de hecho una fecha demasiado tarde para la primera iglesia armenia de Madrás. En primer lugar, ninguna fuente (en inglés o armenio) que conozco proporciona la fecha en que los armenios construyeron por primera vez una iglesia para sus necesidades religiosas. El Acuerdo de 1688 & # 8220 con la Nación Armenia & # 8221 firmado en Londres el 22 de junio y diseñado para atraer a los comerciantes armenios a establecerse en los asentamientos de la Compañía & # 8217 en India (en lugares como Bombay, Madrás y, después de 1690, Calcuta) incluía la siguiente cláusula crucial:

“Siempre que cuarenta o más de la nación armenia se conviertan en habitantes de cualquiera de las guarniciones, ciudades o pueblos pertenecientes a la Compañía en las Indias Orientales, dichos armenios no solo tendrán y disfrutarán del uso y ejercicio libre de su religión, sino que También se les asignará una parcela de terreno para erigir una iglesia en ella para la adoración y el servicio de Dios a su manera y que también, a nuestro cargo, haremos que se construya una iglesia conveniente con piedra u otros materiales sólidos para a su gusto ... y dicho Gobernador y Compañía también permitirán cincuenta libras por año durante el espacio de siete años para el mantenimiento del sacerdote o ministro que decidan para oficiar allí. & # 8221

Leyenda: & # 8220 Acuerdo con los comerciantes armenios que les otorga ciertos privilegios de comercio y residencia en la India de fecha 22 de junio de 1688 & # 8221

BL IOR H 634, folios 581-599. Cortesía de la Biblioteca Británica.

La construcción de una iglesia armenia en Madrás tendría que estar hasta la fecha después de la firma de este acuerdo. La primera referencia a una iglesia de este tipo, ya sea en los registros de la compañía o en la abundante literatura de viajes de la ciudad, parece ser la breve descripción de Madrás de Thomas Salmon, que data del período 1699-1700, donde el autor señala: “En este pueblo negro se encuentra una iglesia armenia y varios [sic] pequeños templos [sic] o indios de la pagoda ". (Ver discusión en Henry Davison Love, Vestigios de la antigua Madras, 1640-1800, vol. 2, 75)

La referencia de Salmon podría ser a una iglesia armenia en otra parte de Madrás & # 8217s & # 8220Black Town & # 8221, donde se habían asentado comunidades de comerciantes armenios, portugueses, judíos e indios. La iglesia de 1712 con un & # 8220high & # 8221 y & # 8220magnífico & # 8221 edificio que según Seth los armenios estaban & # 8220obligados a desertar & # 8221 probablemente estaba ubicada en el lugar (hoy & # 8217s Armenian Street) donde en 1772 la iglesia actual fue construido. Sin embargo, es casi seguro que fue construido y consagrado como iglesia de Santa María & # 8217s [Surb Astuatsatsin] antes de 1712 y más que probablemente alrededor de 1707. Esto es puramente una hipótesis de mi parte, pero una basada en un pensamiento de detective y circunstancial evidencia como la carta nunca antes vista que encontré en la correspondencia personal del gobernador de Fort Saint George [es decir, Madrás], Sir Thomas Pitt también conocido como & # 8220Diamond Pitt & # 8221 debido a su interés en las minas de diamantes en Golconda no muy lejos de Madrás. Esta carta corta y bellamente adornada del Primado de Nueva Julfa, Movses Vardapet, fue escrita a Pitt en mayo de 1709 y agradece al gobernador por estar presente en la consagración de Madrás & # 8217s recientemente construida (նորաշէն) la iglesia armenia de Santa María. Dado que Movses dice que escuchó de la presencia del gobernador, con su Consejo, en la inauguración de la iglesia del sacerdote armenio en Madrás llamado Ter Avet (cuyas cartas de la época están en el Archivo de All Savior & # 8217s y también en mi colección digital ), debemos concluir que la iglesia debe haber sido consagrada solo unos dos años antes de la carta de Movses, es decir, alrededor de 1707 y no 1712, como diría la sabiduría convencional. Las cartas de Madrás a Isfahan por lo general tardaban tres meses en llegar a su destino, pero podían tardar hasta un año entero si no se enviaban & # 8220express. & # 8221 Esto significa que la fecha de consagración de la iglesia ocurrió en algún momento de los dos años anteriores a Movses. Vardapet escribió su & # 8220thank you note & # 8221 al gobernador. A continuación se muestra mi transcripción y traducción provisionales de este documento que se había archivado incorrectamente en el Catálogo de la Biblioteca Británica. Me tomó un tiempo localizarlo en & # 8220Dropmore Papers & # 8221 Additional Manuscripts (ADD) 59481, folio 135.

Thomas & # 8220Diamond & # 8221 Pitt (Gobernador de Madrás 1698-1709)

Քրիստոստի նուաստ ծառայ Մովսէս վարդապէտ որ եւ շնորհօքն աստուծոյ Արք Եպիսկոպոս, մայրաքաղաքիս իսպահանու զետեղեալ քրիստոնէից. Նա եւ ընդ մէզ եղեալ եպիսկոպոսաց. վարդապետաց. եւ քահանայից. որ միշտ հայցեմք ՚ի քրիստոսէ. փրկչէն մերմէ զի մեծապատիւ աղայդ զխոհեմ եւ զխորհրդական. հեզ եւ խորհրդագէտ. հանճարեղ եւ գիտնական. իշխան եւ իշխեզող մադրասու եղեալ… վերոյ գրեալ բարեհամբաւ պարոնաց պարոնիդ. գերամեծար պետիդ հնազանդելոց։

Եւ ընդ փոքրիկ նամակաւս հարցումն առնեմք զմեծութենէ պատուական աղայիդ զոր եւ քրիստոսիւ միշտ լսեմք զբարեբարոյյութեանէ մեծութեանդ այսինքն ՚ի մերայնոց ազանց. եւ մանաւանդ զսէրն որ ունիս առ ՚ի մերայինս զոր եւ մեր որդի Տէր աւէտ քահանայն տեղացդ այլ գրեալէր մեզ թէ մէծացոյն իշխանն, իւր օրհնեալ կօնսէլովն էրէկ մեր նորաշէն եկեղեցոյ օրհնութի [ւն] ետես. եւթէ ուրախութի [ւն] եւս արար, ՚ի սէր անուն սուրբ աստուածածնի շինեալ նորաշէն եկեղեցւոյն մերոյ զոր եւ մեր ընթերցեալ զգրեալսն ՚ի տէր աւետէն մերմէ օրհնեցաք եւ օրհնեմք զքրիստոսասէր իշխանդ, եւ զբարձր թագրաւորութի [ւն] [sic] մեծութեան ձերոյ պահեսցէ զազատագոյն եւ պերճապատիւ իշխանդ յամերամ ժամանօք եւ պարագայծ ամօք [durante muchos años] մինչ ՚ի խորին ծերութիւն. հոգւով եւ մարմնով ուստերօք եւ դստերօք եւ ամենայն ընտանեօք, սիրելեօք եւ բարեկամօք Ամէն։ Այլ եւ գլուխն ամենեցուն քրիստոս աստուած մեր. պահեսցէ անդրդուելի կենօք [vida firme o fuerte] եւ անխրով խաղաղութեամբ զիմաստուն եւ փառաւոր իշխանդ մեր. անգայթակղ եւ անտրտում քաղաքավարութեամբ, եւ զամենայն աւուրս կենացդ անվնաս անցուցանիցես ցնծութեամբ եւ ուրախութեամբ Ամէն

Գրեցաւ ՚ի թիւն փրկչին մերոյ.
ռէճթ Յամսեանն մայիսի ժէ
իսպահան քաղաքի ՚ի ս [ուր] բ ուխտս
Ամենափրկչի։

En el nombre de Dios [Jehová]
Al agente Pitch [sic?] Gobernador,

Del humilde siervo de Cristo, Movses el Archimandrita que es por la gracia de Dios arzobispo de los cristianos que residen en esta metrópoli de Isfahan y que junto con los obispos, archimandritas y sacerdotes que están actualmente con nosotros siempre suplican a Cristo nuestro Salvador y orando por el bienestar de su honorable señoría que es prudente, gentil, juicioso, de talento excepcional, soberano y gobernador. Y con esta breve carta [deseamos] preguntar por el bienestar de su honorable señoría cuya grandeza y bondad hacia todos y especialmente su amor por los de nuestra nación siempre escuchamos de [nuestros comerciantes que están en esos lugares]. Nuestro hijo Ter Avet, el sacerdote allí, nos había escrito [recientemente] que su gran señoría con su bendito consejo había venido a nuestra iglesia recién construida para presenciar su consagración. Y nos complació tanto leer lo que Ter Avet había escrito sobre su amor por nuestra iglesia recién construida que lleva el nombre de María, la Madre de Dios, que lo alabamos y continuamos alabando y orando para que Dios pueda preservar su Gran Majestad y príncipe amante de Cristo. en tu grandeza y salvaguarda a tu más libre y honorable príncipe tanto en espíritu como en cuerpo, con hijos e hijas, y toda tu familia y todos tus seres queridos durante muchos años y en todo momento hasta que alcances la madurez, Amén. Y, además, que el gobernante de todo, Cristo nuestro Dios, sostenga a nuestro sabio y glorioso príncipe en su vida resuelta (անդրդուելի կենօք) con tranquilidad inquebrantable en un estado de gobierno feliz sin obstáculos, para que puedas pasar todos los días de tu vida. lejos del daño y en la felicidad y el gozo, Amén.

Escrito en el año de nuestro salvador
1709 en el mes del 17 de mayo
En la ciudad de Ispahan en el convento
de todos los salvadores.


SEDE DIOCESANA

La Catedral de San Jorge (Surb Gevorg) en Tbilisi es la sede de la Diócesis de la Santa Iglesia Ortodoxa Apostólica Armenia en Georgia desde el siglo XIII. Fue construido en 1251. La Sede de la Diócesis preside la vida solidaria de la población armenia de Georgia, promueve la concentración de la comunidad armenia en Georgia alrededor de la Santa Iglesia Ortodoxa Apostólica Armenia, organiza actividades educativas, escolares, informativas, culturales y juveniles. eventos para la preservación de la identidad armenia, la ética nacional, la moral y los valores, celebraciones adecuadas todos los rituales de la Santa Iglesia Ortodoxa Apostólica Armenia.

La Sede de la Diócesis preside las actividades de las iglesias, monasterios y capillas diocesanas en toda Georgia, así como también gestiona varios centros educativos, científicos, escolares, informativos y culturales, deportivos, juveniles y infantiles (puede ver más en los Departamentos, Centros sección del sitio web).

La Diócesis de la Santa Iglesia Ortodoxa Apostólica Armenia en Georgia coopera estrechamente con la Agencia Estatal de Asuntos Religiosos en Georgia, la Iglesia Ortodoxa de Georgia, la Embajada de la República de Armenia en Georgia, las instituciones pertinentes y el Ministerio de la Diáspora, Cultura, Educación. , Ciencia, Deportes y Juventud de Armenia, así como con varias organizaciones y sindicatos religiosos, sociales, científicos y culturales, tanto en Georgia como en el extranjero. Los socios respetados de la diócesis son la Fundación “Calouste Gulbenkian” y la Fundación Conmemorativa “Vartan Jinishian”.

Brife HISTORIA DE LA DIÓCESIS DEL Santa Iglesia Apostólica Ortodoxa Armenia en Georgia

Según fuentes históricas, la Santa Iglesia Ortodoxa Apostólica Armenia en Georgia como una unidad eclesiástica separada ha existido desde el siglo quinto. El historiador armenio del siglo X Ukhtanes de Sebastia prueba esta afirmación. En su libro “Historia en tres partes”, en el capítulo “Historia de la separación de georgianos y armenios”, el famoso historiador declara que ya en el siglo V había una residencia oficial del obispo armenio en Tsurtavi. Es notable que, a pesar de que la región de Tsurtavi pertenecía a la Iglesia georgiana, allí había una diócesis armenia, donde desde el siglo V por la directiva de San Shushanik las ceremonias de la iglesia se llevaban a cabo en armenio.

Al mismo tiempo, debe mencionarse que, según el historiador armenio del siglo XII Mateo de Edesa, el mayor rey georgiano David el Constructor (1089-1125) otorgó el estatus más alto a la Santa Iglesia Ortodoxa Apostólica Armenia en Georgia, el centro administrativo del cual estaba en Tbilisi. Se supone que la Diócesis de la Santa Iglesia Ortodoxa Apostólica Armenia en Georgia fue fundada oficialmente en el siglo XII en Tbilisi. Desde el siglo XIII, la Catedral de San Jorge (Surb Gevorg) en Tbilisi declaró ser la sede del Primado de la Diócesis de la Santa Iglesia Ortodoxa Apostólica Armenia en Georgia.

En julio de 2011, el parlamento georgiano aprobó una ley que permite a las comunidades religiosas de Georgia recibir un estatus especial. Con base en esa ley, el 12 de marzo de 2012, la Diócesis de la Santa Iglesia Ortodoxa Apostólica Armenia en Georgia está inscrita en el Registro Público del Ministerio de Justicia de Georgia como una entidad legal de Derecho Público.

A día de hoy, la Diócesis de la Santa Iglesia Ortodoxa Apostólica Armenia en Georgia tiene 27 clérigos y 63 iglesias y capillas activas en todo el territorio de Georgia, incluido el Vicariato de Samtskhe-Javakheti y Tsalka también.


Historia

Iglesia St. o Holy Cross Nshan Signs - trehaltarny iglesia armenia, cuya construcción se inició tanuterom Bebutyanom Amir y su hijo Aslamazov en 1701.


Es difícil pasar por alto S. Nshan, dado que se encuentra en el centro, en un barrio densamente poblado del casco antiguo, cerca de la zona de Hércules en el cruce de las antiguas calles estrechas de Silver y Akopian. La iglesia es considerada una de las estructuras kultovyx armenias más notables, que combina elementos decorativos tradicionales armenios y orientales.

La inscripción ktitorskaya de la iglesia principal dice: "Jesucristo, la gracia del Espíritu Santo comprometió la fundación y construcción de esta iglesia Surb en el verano de 1152 (la cronología armenia - Pandukht) en el reinado de Levan Khan y sus hijos, el señor del patriarcado Nahapetov »(1691-1705 - Pandukht.)

En 1720, cuando se esculpió la inscripción, se llevó a la construcción de la cúpula y, como se desprende del registro en el sinódico, la iglesia permaneció durante 50 años sin cúpula, construida en el futuro. Sin embargo, en 1763 en "Dzhambre" Catholicos Simeon Yerevantsi se menciona entre las siete iglesias principales de Tiflis. Ver la iglesia se celebraba el tercer día de Pascua, en la antigüedad se guardaba una partícula del cráneo de San Andrés.


A principios del siglo XVIII, Tbilisi seguía siendo una ciudad multiétnica con un color local original, que se sentía como las tradiciones culturales de las naciones cristianas, los persas y los musulmanes. Por lo tanto, las fachadas de las iglesias armenias en Tbilisi en el momento de la aplicación son elementos característicos de las artes decorativas persas. Las fachadas de las iglesias estaban decoradas con arcos de lancetas, cúpulas de tambores decoradas con azulejos vidriados. Esto es lo que escribió sobre el historiador georgiano de la iglesia Ioseliani:

"S. Nshan disponible para sus inscripciones epigráficas del armenio, fue erigida en el reinado de León, el padre de Vakhtang VI, en 1701. Re-erigida en 1703, 1789, 1868, respectivamente. La iglesia es excelente, con una cúpula , fue erigida en honor a San Nicolás, descansa sobre cuatro pilares, la cúpula está cubierta con sus ladrillos verdes, y la iglesia misma, y ​​los arcos - tejas. Hay tres coros: mediano - grande - en honor a San. Nicolás, el norte - en honor a San Andrés y el sur - en honor a San Jorge. Hay muchas imágenes diferentes de San Nicolás, una muy grande ".

La historia de la construcción, mejoras y modificaciones posleduyuschix se describe en detalle en soxranivsheysya nashix días antes del monumento de la epigrafía. En el recinto de la iglesia había muchos epitafios, la mayoría de los cuales fueron destruidos o fueron clausurados en dependencias residenciales tardías. Sobrevivió solo a aquellos que estaban ubicados muy cerca de las paredes de la iglesia, o conservados en forma de lápidas, que están adheridas a la pared de la iglesia.

Para obtener más información sobre la historia del trabajo relacionado con la iglesia, aprendemos del Sr. Aganyantsa. Éstos son algunos de ellos:

"Fue construido tanuterom Amir y su hijo Aslamazov, luego restaurado en 1703 Melik Giorgi, sí, Megrap Sharipekyan construyó una cúpula en 1784".

"Tanuter Amir y su hijo construyeron una iglesia Aslamazov Surb con su porche y la cerca. Campanario Surb y celdas basadas en los medios Parhudara Khoja y su esposa Darejan".

"Tanuter Aslamazov y su esposa Shahruban renovaron la iglesia".

"Melik Giorgi recién construida y renovada desde el suelo, elevada composición arqueada y hermosa de la iglesia Surb en 1703, se dedicó en 1741 y sirvió al servicio, y en el mismo año murió Melik Giorgi".

"Melik Giorgi, esposa e hijos Hampervan Zurap y papá construyeron una fábrica de ladrillos y donaron la iglesia".

"Tanuter Giorgi movió la valla de la iglesia".

"En 1719 una hija Parhudara Eagund mejoró la torre construida por su padre".

"Paron Perihan construyó el iconostasio de la iglesia".

"El maestro Jacob Bana en la construcción de la iglesia le dio a su aprendiz llamado Sargis, para que sirviera un año dándole a la iglesia un litro de aceite y un charek de cera".

"Hozoents Arakel para la iglesia compró un lugar en la celda y un cementerio".

"El sacerdote Ter-Nikogos Avak actualizó la entrada nueva piedra labrada en la iglesia".

"Los hijos de Murad Alaguluntsa Martiros y Panos han construido una gran puerta porche".

La importancia excepcional y las inscripciones en las paredes de la iglesia. Aquí hay fragmentos de inscripciones talladas en la entrada norte (completa, consta de 13 líneas): "Yo, Giorgi Melik, el hijo de tanutera Aslamazov, construí este templo, dedicado a San Nicolás, en memoria mía y de mis padres, mis hermanos y mi esposa Hampervan, mis hijos - Zurapa y papá, mis hijas y mi infatigable sacerdote Ter-Movses. Y yo, Melik Giorgi, pagué el costo total de este [edificio] en el año 1169-m (cronología armenia - Pandukht) . Cúpula izquierda - en un recuerdo imborrable de aquellos que [su] completo ".

Todos mencionados en fuentes escritas y tanutery lapidario - Amir, Aslamazov y Giorgi - heredados por el alcalde asumieron el cargo en Tiflis, y pertenecían al género Bebutyanov.

De valor y la inscripción, que anuncia la construcción y restauración de la Cúpula (1780), Puertas (1781), Puertas nuevas (1833), La capilla (es la entrada sur en 1861). En 1868 se restauró y se le hizo un interior encalado en cruz de piedra.

En la época soviética, la iglesia se usaba de diferentes maneras. Durante la guerra hubo un almacén de pasta. Luego, las pilas de la Biblioteca Nacional de Georgia en su mayor parte se almacenaron en la Armenia pre-soviética, así como publicaciones periódicas rusas y alemanas.

Poco a poco, la Iglesia de St. Nshan declinó. El periódico "Voice of Armenia" en su número del 26 de septiembre de 1998 escribió: "Hoy, la iglesia en mal estado, entrada rota en el lado norte, pero, como de costumbre, la comunidad armenia y la diócesis no tomaron ninguna medida. Recientemente, un grupo de personas, proporciona el personal de la Sociedad para la Protección de Monumentos, presentó un ultimátum a los habitantes de la corte, si los armenios durante el mes no toman medidas, la iglesia irá a la Diócesis de Georgia. "

Narrado por el actor, director y dramaturgo Thank Stepanian:

"La Iglesia de St. Nshan - es la belleza deslumbrante del monumento. Cuando leí" Ola de felicidad "Zurabyan, me di cuenta de que hay un pintor de murales del tipo Ovnatanyanov. Y siempre pensé - abrid esa puerta para mí para ver los frescos.La iglesia estaba cerrada en todo momento.Además de la iglesia georgiana en funciones, y sobre St. Nshan, nos dijeron que hay muchos libros y se usa como depósito de libros.

Pasa un día, las puertas están abiertas. Era la segunda mitad de los 90. De vuelta, y lo que veo - en el bosque hay dos trabajadores con los georgianos, cinceles en mano y golpean estos frescos. No puedes mirar esta barbarie, no importa si hay hovnatanianos o no. Como mínimo, usted, un cristiano. Hermano, que estas haciendo? Por no hablar del hecho de que es un monumento histórico. Le pregunté: "¿Qué estás haciendo?" - “¿Qué haces aquí, un armenio? - Contéstame muy bruscamente. - Ven, ven, este no es tu sitio.” Bajamos y nos atacamos con sus martillos. Salí, encontré a un sacerdote georgiano. "Santo Padre, ¿sabe lo que está pasando?" - "Este no es tu espacio, suelta". Lo único que podía hacer - llamar al presidente de la Unión de Armenia de Georgia G. Muradyan. Se apresura a regresar al auto, mira, se asegura de que eso suceda. Para resolver el problema no pudo, hasta que se dirigió al Catholicos Vazgen. Vazgen apeló al patriarca georgiano Ilia: todo se detiene, las puertas están cerradas y el asunto sigue sin resolverse. Lo que hay dentro, nadie lo sabe. "

En la iglesia, abandonada durante décadas sin la más mínima reparación y supervisión, el 20 de octubre de 2002 se produjo un gran incendio, que los bomberos apagaron unos cálculos. La versión de la falla eléctrica se eliminó de inmediato, ya que aquí ya no se sirve el voltaje. Según los organismos encargados de hacer cumplir la ley de Georgia y la iglesia que estaba en sus publicaciones periódicas fueron incendiadas debido a que los niños descuidados jugaban con fósforos. De una manera no muy difícil de creer, dado que el incendio comenzó a las 3:00 am.

Así quemó el armenio St. Nshan - el templo, cuyas paredes tienen muchos años de servicio no han escuchado los sonidos. Había tanta literatura que todo el piso estaba cubierto con una espaciosa capa de medio metro de la Iglesia de la Fresno. Sin embargo, un fuego no solo envolvió el libro. Los artistas del fresco fueron Ovnatanyanov pokorezheny y perdieron su apariencia original. Desafortunadamente, bajo la acción del fuego, todo el yeso y toda la capa superior de fresco se desmoronaron, lo que los llevó a la muerte. Y debido a que la iglesia estaba cerrada permanentemente, no pudieron a tiempo para fotografiar y perpetuar. Como resultado, las paredes eran solo rastros de las llamas, y sobre su cabeza, la cúpula ennegrecida.

El incendio acabó con la destrucción del monumento histórico, el templo se convirtió en ruinas y la gente mala lo convirtió en una letrina. Destruyó el patio de la iglesia, el barrio, que de alguna manera ya se ha fusionado con el patio de viviendas. Cerca de la entrada de St. Nshan hay un cartel que dice solo el nombre de la iglesia y nada más. Los muros de la entrada al borde del colapso y lápidas en la entrada cubiertas con soportes de madera.

S. Nshan era una iglesia grande y espaciosa, pero ahora ubicada entre las casas medio en ruinas, calles estrechas y casas antiguas, herida por el fuego, produce una sensación de depresión. Cuando de un paseo por el edificio en memoria de la imagen emergen sin saberlo iglesias en ruinas y piedras cruzadas de Armenia Occidental, que sirvió a la población local como material de construcción habitual. Y eso no daña el fuego, destruye el tiempo y los "vecinos". La gente que vive en el barrio, tan entusiasmada con la construcción de dependencias alrededor de la iglesia, parece que ella no tenía ninguna relación con Dios.

Y es en Georgia, donde la gente con gran inquietud se relaciona con sus propias iglesias. Es difícil de explicar, especialmente teniendo en cuenta que la Iglesia Ortodoxa de Georgia está tratando de presentar a S. Nshan precisamente como la Iglesia Ortodoxa de San Nicolás. Por lo tanto, se argumenta (como de costumbre, las frases más impresionantes me marcaron - Pandukht), que "St. Nshan no se construyó en el siglo XVIII, como la inscripción, y en el XVI-th, y hasta mediados del XIX. siglo había una iglesia georgiana. Luego, los armenios locales se lo limpiaron de deudas ".

"Tenemos que pensar, y con razón, que, según la antigua tradición georgiana, el nombre de San Nikoloz conservado en el nombre del georgiano nativo, pero frente a la Iglesia armenia de San Nshan. Mucho antes del 1700, este georgiano La iglesia era una capilla, pero durante los tiempos difíciles pasó a manos de los armenios. Por alguna razón, esto sucedió es difícil de decir, pero, a pesar de la inscripción armenia ktitorskuyu 1703, para su re-erección tomó un melik Kiork. actuó como el padre melik Kiorka Aslamazov Amir y su abuelo. Debido a su posición oficial (eran Mamasakhlisi - Anciano), fue fácil adquirir el resto de la iglesia georgiana sin supervisión. Aunque es posible una asignación incluso antes ".

Uno tiene la sensación de que los armenios de Tiflis construyeron su iglesia en ruinas georgianas: que si no tuvieran suficiente espacio, si los "historiadores" georgianos contemporáneos no tienen suficiente imaginación. Aún más segundo. Además, se convirtió en "una tradición" que el lado georgiano de sus reclamos sobre la herencia armenia tampoco esté respaldado por un solo documento de archivo.


Recuperando la historia oculta a lo largo de la frontera entre Armenia y Turquía

Two female photographers — one Armenian, one Turkish — worked together to document life on both sides of the border, focusing on Armenians living in hiding.

In a handful of villages along the Turkish side of the border with Armenia, neighbors reported a strange occurrence in 2015. Like an apparition, an unlikely pair of women — Anahit Hayrapetyan, an Armenian Christian, and Serra Akcan, a Muslim from Turkey, traveled through the region without men but with cameras, dredging up uncomfortable century-old secrets.

The women were searching for “hidden Armenians,” whose Christian ancestors survived what historians consider to be a genocide by the Ottoman Empire, starting in 1915, in which nearly 1.5 million Armenians died. The Turkish government rejects the term genocide.

These hidden Armenians whom the photographers sought are descendants of survivors, who were mostly women and children taken in by local Kurdish, Turkish and Arab families, and converted to Islam. In some of the more remote villages in Turkey that Ms. Hayrapetyan and Ms. Akcan visited, the ethnic and religious background of these Armenians were concealed out of fear of reprisal from their neighbors. Parents rarely informed children of their Armenian heritage, with many even avoiding the spoken language so children would not pick it up and discover their ancestry.

Imagen

Ms. Akcan and Ms. Hayrapetyan met in 2006 when they participated in a project between Armenian and Turkish photographers and found that they had much in common. As two female photographers trying to work in patriarchal societies, they became close friends and often leaned on each other for emotional support in their careers.

In 2009, they decided to work together to document Armenian and Turkish life on both sides of the border, and over the next eight years photographed in the villages and towns along it. At times, Ms. Hayrapetyan carried the youngest of her three children with her.

Though the presence of an Armenian woman on the Turkish side of the border, or a Turkish woman on the Armenian side created difficulties for the photographers, Ms. Akcan said, it was important that they work together.

“We are doing this project because we want to change the single most accepted thing in Armenia and Turkey — that the Armenian and Turkish people are enemies,” she said. “So by working together, people start to see that we can be friends — that we can be sisters.”

Ms. Hayrapetyan, a co-founder of 4Plus, a collective of Armenian women photographers, said that they “never hid that Serra is Turkish or that I’m Armenian” while working.

“It made things more difficult, but much more honest, or deep,” she said, “because families knew what the story we were working on was about.”

When they started the project about life on both sides of the border they did not know much about the Armenians living in hiding in the Kurdish and Arab villages on the Turkish side, but as they worked they began to hear more about them. So in 2015, Ms. Akcan and Ms. Hayrapetyan turned to finding, interviewing and photographing them.

Their experiences varied, often village by village. In Kurdish areas it was often easier for the Armenians to talk, Ms. Hayrapetyan said, because the Kurdish people “are going through their own difficult times with the government,” and “facing the past, saying that they had a role in the genocide too, and apologizing.”

Many of the hidden Armenians said they did not know of their background until recently. One man described to them secretly following his grandmother after she said she was going to pick herbs in nearby hills. He discovered her praying in the ruins of an Armenian Christian church in a language he did not understand.

It was a story with particular resonance for Ms. Akcan, because when she was 30 she learned she had a secret connection to the genocide, which her father never told her. Her father’s grandmother was an Armenian, and was discovered hiding in a family garden in eastern Turkey in 1915 or 1916 when she was a teenager. She was taken in by the family and converted to Islam, later falling in love and marrying the oldest son. A few years later, Ms. Akcan’s grandfather was born.

Once history is forgotten it is difficult to recover again, Ms. Hayrapetyan noted, and many people in Turkey, including in the government, deny that the events that led to the deaths of over a million Armenians between 1915 and 1921 ever happened.

“Maybe 100 years from now some people will insist that there was no Syrian war,” she said. “And many will write that there was no Armenian genocide. It’s a game of big countries, and Armenia is a small country with no power. This is how the world is. That’s why we find it important to gather these stories of these people.”


UNCOVERING AZERBAIJAN’S COVERT CAMPAIGN OF CULTURAL CLEANSING AGAINST ARMENIA

An in-depth report published earlier this year at Hyperallergic reveals a harrowing assault on Armenian relics, carried out by Azerbaijan’s government from 1997 to 2006. The report tracks Azerbaijan’s destruction of 89 medieval churches, 5,840 intricate cross-stones, and 22,000 tombstones. This column will present, and explain those findings.

MONUMENTAL CRIMES

One of the well-reported and documented crimes of ISIS was the terrorist organization’s systemic and targeted demolition and campaign of cultural cleansing of historical vestiges throughout Syria and Iraq – sites sacred to Muslims, Jews, Christians, Yazidi Kurds, and others alike – amid their murderous rampage through the area.

According to Marina Gabriel, a coordinator at the American Schools of Oriental Research Cultural Heritage Initiatives (ASOR CHI), the trail of destruction left by ISIS is “almost unprecedented in recent history, and is particularly devastating for a region with extensive history that has impacted the world.”

WORSE THAN ISIS?

While almost unprecedented, it is preceded by a much lesser-known cultural erasure of 89 churches, 5,840 ornate cross-stones, 22,000 tombstones, and other artifacts, sanctioned by the oil-rich regime in post-Soviet Azerbaijan. The fault of these medieval Christian monuments was that they were proof of the rich indigenous Armenian heritage of a once fought over territory that is now an exclave – courtesy of a 1921 Turkish-Soviet treaty – of Azerbaijan. That region, nestled between Armenia and Iran and bordering Turkey, is called Nakhichevan.

Unlike the monuments destroyed by ISIS, however, not even dust remains of the Armenian sacred sites of Nakhichevan. The details of this elegiac, inhumane crime have been exposed in a groundbreaking Hyperallergic report – bolstered by the UK Guardian – by Denver-based political analyst Simon Maghakyan and Yale-trained historian Sarah Pickman. Azerbaijan has not only erased those monuments, but also claims that they never existed to begin with. After all, the regime absurdly claims that Armenians did not live in the region in medieval times.

Surb Karapet (Holy Precursor Church) in Abrakunis, a major center of medieval Armenian theology (© Argam Ayvazyan archives, 1970-1981) Figure 2: The flattened site where Surb Karapet previously stood, as of August 2005 in Abrakunis (today Əbrəqunus) (courtesy Steven Sim)

Before delving into the details of Azerbaijan’s 1997-2006 – near-decade long – perpetration of cultural genocide, the secret erasure of 28,000 medieval Armenian monuments, it’s imperative to understand the deep-seated Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict in its entirety. Its roots run deep, writhing through Soviet history, and are deeply entrenched in a territorial conflict over another region, Artsakh, which is better known by its Russian-Persian name of Nagorno-Karabakh.

THE ARMENIAN-AZERBAIJANI CONFLICT

Figure 3: A map of Nakhichevan and the surrounding region (courtesy Djulfa Virtual Memorial and Museum | Djulfa.com)

The conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh dates back to the demise of the Russian Empire in the early days of the Russian Revolution and the Sovietization of the South Caucasus. Shortly after the uprising that ousted the Tsar, the ephemeral Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic was established. Brimming with internal conflicts, it soon dissolved and separated into the Democratic Republic of Georgia, the Democratic Republic of Armenia, and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.

Three historically Armenian regions in this area (which had also become home to large Azeri populations following nomadic Turkic conquests of the Armenian homeland) – Nagorno-Karabakh, Nakhichevan, and Zangezur – were host to a slew of battles between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the next two years, 1918 through 1920.

After forced Sovietization, Zangezur remained within Soviet Armenia, but Nakhichevan and Nagorno-Karabakh were placed under Soviet Azerbaijan as “autonomous oblasts.” It is often said that this was part of Joseph Stalin’s divide and conquer strategy. However, other scholars claim that the annexation of Nagorno-Karabakh and Nakhichevan to Soviet Azerbaijan recognized the political realities of the day: Turkey, having committed the Armenian Genocide and hell-bent on further weakening what was left of Armenia, was pressuring the Soviets to be generous to Turkey’s co-ethnolinguistic Azerbaijan. Others say that the Soviets favored Azerbaijan’s oil reserves over Armenians’ ancient presence and rich history in the South Caucasus.

For the next few decades, tensions between the Soviet states of Armenia and Azerbaijan quelled, freezing to a standstill under the hard chill of Moscow rule. However, as the Iron Curtain began to dwindle and weather in the late 1980s and into the early 1990s, contention over Nagorno-Karabakh began to thaw, reemerging with intense ferocity.

Throughout its Soviet epoch, Nagorno-Karabakh maintained a majority Armenian population, while Nakhichevan’s diminished as aggressive Azeri policies cleansed the region of its indigenous Christian inhabitants (40% in 1914 down to a paltry 1.4% by 1979 today the number of Armenians in Nakhichevan is zero).

Fearing the fate of Nakhichevan’s Armenian denizens, Nagorno-Karabakh pursued confederacy with Soviet Armenia in 1988. However, under Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev’s rigid policies, the region descended into chaos as war broke out between Armenia and Azerbaijan.

When, just three years later, in 1991, the Soviet Union finally collapsed under its own weight, and Armenia and Azerbaijan emerged as newly independent states, tensions between the belligerents escalated. Armenia-backed Nagorno-Karabakh (which the native Armenian inhabitants call Artsakh) was up against an Azerbaijan aided by mercenaries and volunteers from its Muslim-majority compatriots, Afghanistan and Chechnya, and heavily supported by Turkey, which some believe had a plan of attacking Armenia in 1993.

After consuming tens of thousands of lives on both sides, and uprooting many more, a cease-fire, intermediated by Russia, was successfully negotiated in May of 1994. Armenians miraculously won the war – which some attribute to the specter of yet another Armenian Genocide hanging above their heads. Artsakh not only became a de-facto republic, but gained a large “buffer zone” territory that was not part of its Soviet boundaries.

The humiliating defeat of Azerbaijan might have been one of the reasons why its leadership decided to perpetrate the Cultural Genocide in Nakhichevan.

Maghakyan and Pickman present a detailed investigation into this destruction, including recounting Soviet-era documentary efforts of the existing monuments, eyewitness testimony of the post-Soviet erasure, satellite data, and even Azerbaijani governmental documents that implicitly acknowledge the wipeout of Nakhichevan’s ancient Armenian past.

DOCUMENTING THE DESTRUCTION

Today, tourists vying to visit historical vestiges in post-Soviet Nakhichevan will be dismayed to find the land stripped clean and excavated of its Armenian roots and heritage sites in a fashion harking back to Joseph Stalin’s Great Purge, in which whole swaths of documents and photographs were meticulously edited to wipe out inconvenient facets of history. Only here, the victims of historical revisionism aren’t photos and papers, they are sculpted stones and grand churches dating back thousands of years.

Predicting the inevitable demise of Armenian relics throughout Azerbaijani occupied Nakhichevan, an Armenia-based researcher, Argam Ayvazyan, spent more than two decades, from 1964 to 1987, amassing a trove of documentation, enough to fill the crevices of 200 published articles and 40 books, on the region’s intrinsic Armenian roots.

By the time the ‘90s rolled around, marked by the fall of the Berlin Wall and demise of the Soviet Union more broadly, Ayvazyan had documented 89 Armenian churches and 5,840 ornate “khachakars” (the Armenian word for ancient slabs of stone bearing a hand-carved cross, abound with intricate decals) and 22,000 horizontal tombstones, among other Armenian monuments.

Fast-forward to the turn of the millennium, and the cultural artifacts archived by Ayvazyan all but disappeared under the heel of Azerbaijani occupation. When, in 2005, a Scottish researcher, Steven Sim, traveled to Nakhichevan intent on assessing the grand churches captured in the work of Ayvazyan, he instead found vacant lots and scant tumbleweeds amid the arid land. Azerbaijani state police, parroting propaganda, explained to him, as quoted in Hyperallergic, “Armenians came here and took photographs … then went back to their country and inserted into them photographs of churches in Armenia … There were no Armenians ever living here – so how could there have been churches here?”

The only historical remnants Sim was able to find, were toppled headstones in an ancient cemetery in what had been the city of (Old) Julfa in the medieval era. They had only survived due to their location, being within a stone’s throw of Nakhichevan’s international border with Iran. But even this internationally-renowned cemetery, which was considered the largest medieval Armenian necropolis, was not spared.

Figure 4: Northern Iran’s late Armenian Prelate prays tearfully in the foreground of the Djulfa cemetery as Azerbaijani soldiers across the River Araxes (the natural international border between modern Azerbaijan and Iran) destroy its remaining 2,000 medieval khachkars in December 2005 (courtesy Djulfa Virtual Memorial and Museum | Djulfa.com)

Mere months later, the Armenian Church in Northern Iran – near the border with Azerbaijani occupied Nakhichevan – was alerted of a military attack on the Julfa cemetery, visible across the border. Armenian Bishop Nshan Topouzian and his driver were able to film a mob of over 100 Azerbaijani soldiers hoisting sledgehammers and operating dump trucks and cranes destroying the historic cemetery’s final remnants: 2,000 “khachkars” – more than a thousand had already been destroyed within the last few years.

The cemetery in Julfa was the final, major Armenian site in Nakhichevan to be razed. In the Azerbaijani crusade against Nakhichevan’s Armenian ties, nothing remained. Between 1997 and 2006, the Government of Azerbaijan eradicated every material trace of ancient Armenian heritage in the previously-disputed region of Nakhichevan, including 89 medieval churches, 5,840 intricately-carved cross-stones, and 22,000 tombstones.

Figure 5: Some of Djulfa’s thousands of khachkars before their destruction, the majority of which were erected in the 16th century (© Argam Ayvazyan archives, 1970-1981)

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) conducted a geospatial study in 2010, which concluded that, “satellite evidence is consistent with reports by observers on the ground who have reported the destruction of Armenian artifacts in the Djulfa cemetery.”

Figure 6: Satellite images showing the complete disappearance of the medieval cemetery of historic Djulfa (in Armenian, Jugha) nearby what is today the Azerbaijani village Gülüstan in Nakhichevan’s Culfa (Julfa) region. Close-up of the southwestern portion of the cemetery clearly shows the extent to which the area has been scoured. Upper image from 2003 lower image from 2009 (courtesy the American Association for the Advancement of Science / Digital Globe)

Despite vehement denial of perpetrating cultural genocide against Nakhichevan’s Armenian heritage, Azerbaijan’s own government is host to some of the strongest evidence of their war crimes. Maghakyan and Pickman unearth previously-unknown evidence from official Azerbaijani sources. In the days leading up to Julfa’s demolition, the Azeri autocrat of Nakhichevan, Vasif Talibov, ordered a detailed inventory of the region’s monuments. When the investigation was finished, the resulting 522-page English/Azerbaijani bilingual report omitted spates of historic Armenian vestiges which, in previous government data, prior to demolishing them, had acknowledged.

Today, the sole extant speckle of Christian heritage in Nakhichevan is the former St. Alexander Nevsky Russian Orthodox Church, built in 1862 by an Armenian clan. According to Azerbaijani authorities, it is known as the “Ordubad Temple.” The temple serves two purposes for Azerbaijan: (1) a museum to display photos of Islamic monuments, and (2) a façade draped over the Azeri government’s morbid erasure of Armenian culture, wielded by its state media to posture Azerbaijan’s ostensible tolerance and “multiculturalism.”

What Armenian remnants survived the Azerbaijani’s campaign of cultural genocide, the Azeri government re-branded as “ancient Azerbaijani” relics. As one example, in 2009, Nakhichevan’s Azeri officials boasted a new Islamic sepulcher as, “the restored 8th-century grave monument of the Prophet Noah.” It was, however, once an Armenia tomb in an Armenian cemetery in an Armenian land.

TURKEY’S SUPPORT

Paralleling Turkey’s continued denial of the Armenian genocide – where, aside from massacring 1.5 million Armenians, the Ottoman Turks laid waste to over 2,538 Armenian churches and 451 monasteries – Azerbaijan’s autocratic regime fervently denies not only its systematic and complete destruction of Armenian monuments, but rubbing salt on an open wound, denies their very existence.

Turkey’s ties to the hemorrhaging of Armenian history don’t end there. Under the 1921 Turkish-Soviet treaty, Turkey is the protectorate of Nakhichevan. It is widely accepted that Turkey – which, unlike mainland Azerbaijan, has a border with Nakhichevan – supplies the latter with its entire military arsenal.

Albeit never officially confirmed, it stands to reason that Turkey provided the anti-tank mines to blow up all surviving 89 medieval Armenian cathedrals in Nakhichevan between 1996 and 2007.

While Turkey’s siege on Armenian churches and landmarks in the 1915 genocide far exceeds Azerbaijan’s in sheer numbers, traces and recognizable ruins of Armenia’s rich history have endured in Eastern Turkey (what used to be Western Armenia). However, under Azerbaijani occupation, Nakhichevan has been entirely bifurcated from its deep, historical ties to Armenia, which, sanctioned by Azerbaijan, have been forever destroyed.


Armenian Inscription in Surb Karapet Church - History


[1] Zenob was abbot of Glak monastery for 20 years.

After [Zenob] was Epip'an, the student of Anton, who ruled for 30 years. In his 10th year, St. Gregory came to Glak monastery and remained with Anton and Kronides on Aweteac' hill for 4 months. But they removed him from the place, saying: "Go to some uninhabited place in the wilderness, so that no one will glorify your sanctity." So he went to Maneay cave and lived there for 7 years, and passed from this life to the glory of God.

Then his student Step'anos directed the monastery for 15 years. In his 4th year, the holy Anton died, and two months later blessed Kronides, having dwelled 40 years in the place called Innaknean [Nine Springs]. He is buried not far from the church on the south side. It was he who built the church where the relics of St. Gregory are kept, on the other side of Kuarhac', by the gushing spring [g7]. There he established 60 clerics of angelic behavior.

[2] Ep'rem ruled 28 years.
Yovhannes, 10 years. He lived in the time of St. Sahak.
Ghimindos, 10 years.
Markos, 18 years.
Kiwregh, 22 years. He was the first bishop ordained by the Armenian kat'oghikos, Yovhann Mandakuni.
Grigor, 6 years.

Andreas, 11 years. [It was Andreas who went with the Armenian kat'oghikos, Vardan, to a meeting of the Byzantines at which all the Armenians, Iberians/Georgians and Greeks with the emperor Zeno confessed Christ of One Nature. YM p. 8 n.3 in 3 mss.]

Nerses, 7 years.
Yovhannes, 3 years.
Sahak, 5 years.
Yovsep', 6 years.
Bart'oghimeos, 4 years.

At'anas, 10 years. It was At'anas who, in the time of the Armenian kat'oghikos Movses, devised the calendar, at Movses' command, in the city of Duin, for he was familiar with the calendars of all peoples.

Komitas, 8 years. He went to the Iberian/Georgian kat'oghikos from the Armenian kat'oghikos Abraham to create unity.

Step'annos, 6 years. During the time of the Armenian kat'oghikos Komitas, Step' annos went to him and brought some relics of the [3] holy Hrhip'simeans and placed them in Glak monastery where he himself was. Komitas had [re]built the chapel of the blessed Hrhip'simeans [g8].

T'adeos [T'odik], 30 years. He received virtue in his childhood, and was a student of Barsegh, becoming dear to him (on account of his conduct), and to Mushegh, prince of the Mamikoneans, who increased his holdings with many dastakerts. He established many clerics in Glak monastery, hermits who ate but once a day, and lived alone, 388 of them.

In his time four men arrived from Byzantium, men who were hermits and herb eaters, and opposed to any pleasures of the flesh. They wished to continue on to Sukaw mountain, and once they had come to that place they desired to dwell in the retreat. After they had been there for 2 years, some three other men from Sagastan heard about [them]. Arriving at that very place, Glak, and meeting each other, they stayed in the same place. Some remained at Innaknean, on Aweteac' hill, and others in the caves which were to the southeast of the hidden Cross. Others went to the forested hills. They stayed for a long time, 20 years, practising their discipline.

[4] Now in the time of the rule as prince of Mushegh Mamikonean, and during T'odik's directorship of the monastery, marvellous deeds were performed at Glak, at the church of St. Karapet. The prince of the Arcrunik', who was named Vard patrik, had built many churches and monasteries. He had a pious wife named Mariam. Since he was going to Caesarea, he brought his wife to her father, Mushegh. He left his wife there, entrusted the district to others of the azats, and departed. Now since his wife [Mariam] was very desirous of seeing [g9] the holy men attached to Glak monastery and the congregation of Karapet, one day she came with great enthusiasm to the church of Karapet bringing along her first-born son, a small suckling child. Many times she beseeched the clerics to allow her to enter the church, but the attendants prevented her. However [the cleric] Step'annos took the small child in his arms, brought him before the altar, had him worship the Lord, and then brought him back and gave him to his mother. Now [Mariam] took the child and began to weep, saying:

Saying this the woman took out numerous fragrant incenses and gave them to the attendants, and she gave much treasure for the needs of the church. She sent a message to father T'odik to accept the goods and to let her inside. But T'odik said:

[6] As soon as she went out, the church attendants became annoyed, resentful and very chagrined because of her act, and they did not prepare food for the woman. But Mariam ordered her servants to make a meal for the clerics and to call them all to table. There were 395 men. When they had dined the woman said: "Oh lovers of holiness and zealots of divine service, rejoice with me in the Lord, for He forgave me and fulfilled the desire of my heart. Now bless me and let me depart in peace." [Her party] departed.

The church warden and a certain one of the clerics went before the altar [of St. Karapet] and said: "Oh Lord, if you pardon the woman who did this, other women will dare to do the same. Now give a sign of your strength that it be a testimony to the generations, and a witness and law to the multitudes." As soon as they had set the woman on her way, she ascended a small hill on the southern side of the monastery, at the head of Nardak [5 mss: Sadak], facing a small stronghold of Mecamor below Nardak which they call Andak. [Mariam] saw a wondrous sight to the north. She threw her child to the dayeak ("guardian," "tutor") and said: "I see a man with long hair in a thundering cloud coming [7] to me from the church. I see with him a sword, sharp and wet and dyed with blood." While speaking she was struck and perished there [g11]. Seeing this, the servants went and informed the church attendants. The abbot became angry with the warden and grew very sad and wept for many hours. Then, taking attendants with him he went to the place, made a grave and buried her there. He erected a xach'k'ar [stone cross] and wrote on it as follows:

Should Anyone Dare to BattleAgainst the Church of God, Let this Sword be through Him

Now [the abbot] took [the woman's] child and gave him to the dayeaks until he reached puberty. At that time [the abbot] took him to the monastery and trained him and established him as abbot before his own death. Now when [the lad's] father, the prince of Arcrunik' came back from Caesarea and heard about the death of his wife, he was seized with remorse. Abbot T'odik consoled him. And the prince resolved to construct a church. He went in search of [building] materials to Matravank', built a beautiful church there, and named it after his wife [Mariam], Holy Astuacacin [Mother of God]. He adorned it [8] with marvellous vessels and appointments. He similarly embellished holy Karapet at Glak monastery with great glory.

[This prince] returned to Karapet [the villages of] Kuarhs and Parex, since a certain impious prince of the Mamikonean house had shorn these two awans ("hamlets") from the monastery and given them to some gusan ("minstrel") woman. [The monastery's] abbot, Kiwregh, became incensed at this and cursed the prince for separating the villages from the monastery. After a month, when this prince was going to the hunt, his horse threw him and he gave up the ghost. Although the son returned the awans, nonetheless the abbot did not accept them from [g12] him until the arrival of this prince. The prince weighed out 22,000 dahekans gave them to the prince of Taron, bought Kuarhs and Parex and gave them to the monastery with a deed. In addition he gave two villages of his own district, Artamet and the gah ("seat") [village] of the princes. Then he left his son with T'odik and went to his own district. When he died he had his remains taken to Innaknean [monastery] and he is buried three paces from the church on the eastern side.

At that time they killed the Iranian king Ormizd, and his son Jamb Xosrov came as a fugitive to the Byzantines. Having been baptized in the Chalcedonian faith, he departed with troops from [the emperor] Maurice [A.D. 582-602] to the Iranian officials, and took [his] country. Now when Xosrov was coming back from Byzantium, upon the order of Maurice he took to Duin Mushegh, lord of Mush and prince of Taron's Xut' and of Sasun, and established him as marzpan of Armenia, giving him 30,000 Armenian troops. [Xosrov] took 70,000 Byzantine troops and went to Bahl Sahastan. The Byzantines were too proud to encamp with the Armenian troops, so they went a day's journey distant to [a] dastakert ("estate") and encamped there [g13].

Now Nixorch'es, the one who had killed Ormizd, assembled 80,000 Iranian soldiers and marched against Mushegh. The brave Mushegh, having encouraged the troops, barely convinced them to enter battle. Mushegh, prince of the Mamikoneans and marzpan of Armenia, advised the Armenian soldiers to call on St. Karapet as an intercessor and support. Having done so in unison, they attacked the [rebel] Iranians, and the Lord gave the enemy into their hands. When Mushegh had discerned who the monarch was, he approached him and they started to fight each other. Mushegh was exhausted, but, placing life or death before [10] himself, he raised up his club and brought it down on Nixorch'es' skull. His brains oozed out of his nostrils. He severed Nixorch'es' head and flung it into his pouch. The soldiers were encouraged in their fighting and grew more powerful. They put the enemy to flight, capturing 48 princes alive, while the number of the slain was unknown because of the multitude of them. Among the princes they captured 1,000 men, and with great triumph [Mushegh] returned from the battle.

As soon as king Xosrov was informed of what had happened, he rejoiced exceedingly. But the army of the Byzantines was grieved, feeling intense shame. Just when the king summoned Mushegh and was preparing to bestow gifts (pargew) on all the soldiers, Maurice (whom the Byzantines had set up as emperor) sent [a message] to Xosrov, saying: "Are you aware of the fact that Mushegh threatens the king with death?" Now [Xosrov] planned to ensnare and kill Mushegh and he sent to have the latter summoned. However, Xosrov's sister, having learned [of the plot], informed Mushegh of her brother's treachery. Mushegh took along [11] with him 40 princes, without anyone else, and they organized in war formation. With swords at the waist, they went to the king [g14]. Coming on horses up to the door of the tent (xoran), they responded in severity and exposed the assassination plot. They spat on him and ridiculed his foolishness. Then [Mushegh] arising in great anger with all the princes, left the king. As soon as the king heard [what they had said] he was frightened, for he was a youth.

Now prince Mushegh sent to the Byzantine general, saying: "You treacherously wished to slay me. Do not arouse a sleeping lion or a wolf which has forgotten its natural way of acting. Otherwise he who vanquished 80,000 can slay 70,000 too." He left troops in Duin and quit the marzpanate. He gathered his troops which were from the Mamikonean tun, and came to his own district. After a few years, Phocas killed Maurice, and sat on the throne himself [A.D. 602-610].

Xosrov went to avenge Maurice and enroute passed by the city of Karin. He sent [a message] to Mushegh, the prince of Taron, saying: "Come with me to the court of the Byzantine emperor, and avenge the death of Maurice. Otherwise, on my return, I will destroy your country and take you in fetters to the royal court, with your wife and sons. Now Mushegh did not send any reply [to Xosrov], but instead [12] began to fortify the district. When Xosrov went he took booty and captives from the country of the Byzantlnes and then passed to the Basen area, to Duin, Her and Bahl. But when [the Iranians] came to Karin, Xosrov sent Mihran to prince Mushegh in Taron that he capture Mushegh and take him to the Iranians. He commanded that those places where [Mushegh] had churches be destroyed, and that the clerics be kllled. Arriving there, those sent to accomplish this, did so [g15].

In the first year of the kingship of Phocas [A.D. 602] (one of the servants of Maurice who had treacherously killed the emperor and sat on his throne), Xosrov recalled the oath he had made with Maurice and came to Byzantium with 140,000 troops. He dug through many awans and districts and then turned back. Now he sent his sister's son, Mihran, to Taron with 30,000 men. As soon as he arrived in the Hashtenic' district, he captured someone to serve as their guide, and they came as far as the Inscribed Stone [at Arjan]. Having read the characters of the inscription they destroyed it, and 8,000 of [13] them went on to Meghti and Asteghunk' stronghold, while 22,000 remained at Arjan watching the fugitives. As soon as 7 men who were vegetarians, learned [about the situation], they came to the monastery and made all the clerics flee. Some fled and some remained. But Poghikarpos sent everyone to Oghkan stronghold, keeping only abbot T'odik and the church attendants in the place. And he ordered the attendants to ready themselves for communion. Once the 7 vegetarians performed mass, they ordered a secretary who had come from Byzantium to record what they said. They raised their hands before the holy altar and spoke the following [g16]: [We omit the translation of the prayers on pp. 17-19]

Having said "Amen," a voice came from Heaven which said: "Let it be as you wish. Those who for My sake and for Saint Karapet have dwelled apart, I shall repay upon my [second] coming and I shall forgive their sins. For I am merciful to all. Now come to the place of light which you have readied [for yourselves] through your asceticism." When the blessed men heard this, they worshipped before the holy altar and then went outside. Poghikarpos went before the holy Cross and began to pray and beseech God for the peace of the [14] entire land, the ruin of the enemy which had come, and for the poor remaining in their places. Suddenly the Iranian army arrived. As soon as they saw Poghikarpos, they quickly cut his neck and threw his body in front of the Cross. Quickly coming as far as the church door and seeing the clerics there weeplng and praying, they flung themselves upon the seven and cut them down. Their names were as follows:

T'eovmas,
Poghikarpos
Simeon,
Yohannes,
Epip'an,
Dimarhios
and Enarkios.

These seven were killed by the Iranian troops of Mihran on the 4th day of the month of K'aghoc' [December-January], which was Thursday, at the 9th hour. And [the Iranian troops] remained there until morning [g20].


About us

The parish of the Armenian Apostolic Church of Italy was founded in 1955 with the center in Milan, at the church of the Holy Forty Martyrs (S. Qarasun Mankunq). The first settlements of Armenians in Italy appear in Roman times. While the first information on the medieval era dates back to the VI-VII centuries. The churches built by the Armenians are already remembered in the 12th century. From the beginning of the 14th century, the ecclesiastical title “Episcope of the Armenians of Italy” is mentioned. In the XIII-XIV centuries more than 40 Armenian churches and monasteries were known, subordinate to the Armenian Apostolic Church, in various areas of Italy, with greater concentration in Venice, Trieste, Ravenna, Genoa, Rome and Naples. The Armenian communities in Italy had as spiritual pastors, priests and archimandrite, but also bishops and archbishops, as dioceses or minor religious community entities. Hospitals operated in churches, Armenian houses where Armenians were treated, and merchants could stay. The Armenian church of St. Gregory the Illuminator still worked in Naples in the 10th century. The saint was considered the protector of Naples and his feast was celebrated. Its relics are found in the church of San Gregorio known as Armeno. Part of the relics were delivered to Catholicos of all Armenians, Garegin B Nersisyan on the occasion of his visit to the Vatican (11/11/2000) and are kept in the gavit of the cathedral of St. Gregory Illuminator in Yerevan. In Naples the church of the Holy Spirit is mentioned (Surb Hoghi) (1328). While the S.Hakob church was built in Rome in the 11th century, the Armenian church of S.Barsegh existed in Milan in the same century. In the period 1342-1650 the Barseghyan religious congregation was active. In 1320 a monastery was founded in Pisa, which, according to a funeral inscription, had belonged to the Armenians for over a hundred years. In this monastery manuscripts were copied which are now found in the National Library of Vienna and in the Ambrosian Library of Milan. In 1307 in Genoa the Armenians built the convent and the church of S. Bartolomeo, which survived until 1650. The Armenian monastery and the church of S. Giovanni Battista are mentioned in Venice. Instead, the construction of the church of Santa Croce (Surb Khach) dates back to 1434 and from the 18th century. belongs to the Mechitarist congregation. At the end of the fourteenth century. because of the persecutions at the time of the inquisition and the forced conversion to Catholicism, Armenian ecclesiastical institutions have come under the rule of local ecclesiastical institutions.

The current community of the Armenian Apostolic Church in Italy was founded in the early 1900s by Armenians immigrants from Turkey and other Near Eastern countries who settled in northern Italy, Milan and other small and large cities. The first parish priest was ordained the pastor Elise Parsamian (1924-1937). After his death, the Armenian community for a decade and a half had guest pastors, invited from Paris, Marseille, Vienna. On the eve of the Second World War, the Union of Armenians of Italy was founded, whose statute was ratified by the Italian government. At the beginning of the 1950s, religious celebrations took place at the Anglican Church of All Saints in Milan. In 1995 the Italian authorities with the presidential decree recognized the community of believers of the Armenian Apostolic Church and gave an official permit for the construction of an Armenian church. Currently the only functioning Armenian apostolic church is the Church of the Holy Forty Martyrs of Milan, built in 1957 (architects R. Iisraelian, P. Surian), and consecrated in 1958. The first pastor was the bishop Mons. Zgon Ter-Hakobyan, the member of the congregation of S. Hakobyants (1955-75). From 2018 and up to now he is Father Tirayr Hakobyan.


History and legends

Later churches were founded around the mother church of Ashtischat in Taron. Legends handed down by medieval Armenian historians, according to which monasteries were built in Taron or elsewhere in Armenian territory at the time of Gregory, do not withstand historical or archaeological scrutiny. There are no reliable references to monasteries in pre-Arab times (before the 7th century). This also calls into question the supposedly early founding of the famous Karapet Monastery.

For Surb Karapet and Yeghrduti Vank, who were associated with St. Gregory because of their location near Ashtishat, a legendary connection to the first Christian apostles seemed necessary, which was generally put forward to justify the early Christian demarcation of the Armenian from the Byzantine Church becomes. On his trip to the Orient in 1843/44, Karl Koch learned that the remains of John the Baptist were being kept in the two monasteries . They came to Ephesus in the 1st century and were brought to Caesarea in Cappadocia (today Kayseri ) because of the persecution of Christians under the Roman Emperor Decius in 251 . St. Gregory received them from there and distributed them in the area of ​​his first mission. In addition to Surb Karapet, Yeghrduti Vank came into possession of a smaller part of the bones. The monastery has the name Surb Hovhannes Vank ("Johanneskloster") y los apodos Manra Vank ("lugar de las pequeñas cosas", léase: los pequeños huesos), Madre Vank ("lugar del dedo meñique") y Madra Vank ("lugar de la capilla") recibir.

El apogeo de Taron, a partir del cual comenzó la expansión de los monasterios, comenzó a fines del siglo X cuando los príncipes de la dinastía Mamikonian tomaron el poder en la provincia y, como en el este de Armenia, alcanzó su punto máximo en el siglo XII. . El monasterio constaba de la iglesia principal Surb Hovhannes , que estaba ubicado en un patio amurallado, así como dependencias sagradas y seculares. Además, de un testamento Arcvaber ( Ardzvaper capilla mencionada) informes, indicando los nombres que guardaba en el monasterio la caligrafía de los Evangelios fue traída por un águila. Algunas otras leyendas rodean los orígenes del monasterio y su importancia en la Edad Media. Cuando Karl Koch pasó por el monasterio en su camino de Surb Karapet a Muş en octubre de 1843, lo encontró todavía habitado, pero asediado por kurdos que se establecieron en el área, y un pueblo cristiano cercano llamado "Khardsor" estaba en gran parte desierto por sus residentes. En el lugar del monasterio se conservan los restos de un edificio con un muro exterior de 60 metros de largo.


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